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Antenna and Its Type: You Must Know

Janey Liang                         2022-06-09


Antennas are widely used in our lives, covering everything from our usual telephone communication to vast astronomical observations. So what is an antenna? What are the classifications of antennas? Read this article to take you through the knowledge you must know.

What’s the antenna?


An antenna is not just a simple device connected to each radio. An antenna is a device that couples a transmitter to a medium (in this case, free space). They are transducers that convert the voltage from the transmitter into a radio signal. They extract radio signals from the air and convert them into voltage to recover in the receiver. The antenna is an electromagnetic radiator; it generates an electromagnetic field, which is transmitted from the transmitting antenna to the receiver antenna, and then converts the electromagnetic wave into an electrical signal, which is then applied to the input stage of the receiver; the antenna is a kind of converter, which will propagate on the transmission line The guided waves of are converted into electromagnetic waves propagating in an unbounded medium (usually free space), and vice versa. A component used to transmit or receive electromagnetic waves in radio equipment.

Engineering systems such as radio communications, broadcasting, television, radar, navigation, electronic countermeasures, remote sensing, and radio astronomy all use electromagnetic waves to transmit information and rely on antennas to work. In addition, when using electromagnetic waves to transmit energy, non-signal energy radiation also requires an antenna. Generally, the antenna is reversible, that is, the same antenna can be used as both a transmitting antenna and a receiving antenna. The same antenna has the same basic characteristic parameters for transmission or reception. This is the reciprocity theorem of antennas.

What types of antennas are there?

Antennas can be divided into the following types in different ways:

  1. According to the working mode, it can be divided into transmitting antenna and receiving antenna;

  2. According to the purpose, it can be divided into communication antennas, broadcast antennas, TV antennas, radar antennas, etc.;

  3. According to the direction, it can be divided into omnidirectional antenna and directional antenna, etc.;

  4. According to the working wavelength, it can be divided into ultra long wave antenna, long wave antenna, medium wave antenna, short wave antenna, ultra short wave antenna, microwave antenna, etc.;

  5.  According to the structure and working principle, it can be divided into line antenna and surface antenna, etc.;


  6. According to the size, it can be divided into one-dimensional antenna and two-dimensional antenna.

    • One-dimensional antenna

      It is composed of multiple wires. These wires are either straight lines used in cell phones or some smart shapes, like the old bunny ears used on televisions before the advent of cables. Monopole antennas and dipole antennas are the two most basic one-dimensional antennas

    • Two-dimensional antennas

      There are many types, including sheets (a square piece of metal), arrays (a pile of organized two-dimensional patterns), horns and dishes.

  7. It can be divided into three categories: handheld station antennas, vehicle antennas, and base station antennas.

    • Handheld station antenna

      It is the antenna used by personal hand-held walkie-talkies. There are two common ones: rubber antennas and whip antennas.

    • Vehicle-mounted antenna

      It is the communication antenna originally designed and installed on the vehicle. The most common application is a suction cup antenna. On the vehicle-mounted antenna structure, there are also antennas in the form of shortened, quarter-wavelength, center-inductive, five-eighth-wavelength, and dual-half-wavelength antennas.

    • Base station antenna

      It plays a very critical role in the entire communication system, especially as a communication station as a communication hub. Commonly used base station antennas include glass fiber reinforced plastic high-gain antenna, four-loop array antenna (eight-loop array antenna), and directional antenna


Understanding the basic knowledge of antennas helps us to apply and sell related products. If you want to know more, you can read other articles by Newstar.

If you are interested in buying various antennas, you can check Newstar's products. Shaanxi Newstar was established in 2008 to provide satellite communication antenna research and development, production supply, system integration, installation, commissioning, training and operation services for ISPs (Internet service providers), broadcasters, satellite network operators and system integrators. Microwave and wireless converged communication network solutions. We look forward to becoming your trusted partner.

If you have any questions, you can contact us for more consultation.

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